Friday, March 23, 2007

Transantiago versus Transmilenio

Andar en "micro" por las calles de Bogotá, Colombia, no es lo mismo que 6 años atrás. Desde diciembre de 2000, la ciudad ha experimentado una completa transformación en su sistema de locomoción colectiva,gracias a la implementación del plan de transporte urbano conocido como Transmilenio, cuyos exitosos resultados lo han convertido en uno de los proyectos más exitosos que se han realizado para modificar el sistema de locomoción colectiva en una ciudad latinoamericana.

La red global es operada por 470 buses articulados de color rojo que circulan por las rutas principales con una frecuencia de un vehículo cada tres minutos, y por 1.470 buses más pequeños (de color verde) para las vías secundarias.

Producto de las nuevas vías segregadas, los tiempos de viaje disminuyeron de tres a una hora diaria, debido a que la velocidad promedio de circulación subió de 10 a 26 km por hora. Además, todo el sistema cuenta con una moderna Central de Control, que utiliza sistemas GPS para monitorear a los buses con el fin de ajustar los recorridos si hay atraso, aumento inesperado en la demanda, un accidente en las vías u otro evento no previsto.

El sistema completo opera con tarjetas de prepago, lo que agiliza el acceso al bus de los pasajeros y evita que el chofer realice la doble función de cobrar y conducir.Además los buses están especialmente acondicionados para personas en silla de ruedas ya que cuentan con un sistema de rampla que deja el vehículo al mismo nivel de la calle, con lo que el acceso es directo y sin recurrir a terceros.

Las estaciones o "portales" -el equivalente al terminal de las líneas de buses en Santiago-, son similares a las estaciones de metro, muy iluminadas y a donde se accede a través de las líneas "alimentadoras" del sistema.

Antecedentes

Cada año, las calles de Bogotá -donde habitan casi 7 millones de habitantes- recibían 40 mil nuevos automóviles y eran recorridas por 22 mil buses. El caótico tráfico vehicular que caracterizó la capital colombiana durante las últimas décadas parece estar quedando atrás, con la ayuda del moderno sistema de transporte público integral puesto en marcha por la Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá.

La grave crisis que enfrentaba el transporte público en Bogotá, sumada a los problemas de desplazamiento dentro de la ciudad, obligaron a los colombianos a diseñar un mecanismo que les permitiera solucionar de manera rápida y económica la situación y que, de paso, sirviera para mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas.

La primera opción fue construir una línea de metro que finalmente fue descartada por sus altos costos. Posteriormente, se optó por una red de buses similar a la que opera en ciudades como Quito (Ecuador) y Curitiba (Brasil), las cuales mezclan, según han expresado los técnicos del Transmilenio, las dos características más preciadas para los pasajeros: seguridad y eficiencia.De esta forma se creó el llamado "Plan Bogotá", que pretendía crear una red de vías segregadas para buses -con paraderos cada 500 metros en las principales arterias de la ciudad- y otra de vías secundarias, o "alimentación" de las primeras. La idea era segmentar los recorridos y racionalizar la cantidad de buses que transitan en las calles, evitando las congestiones que provocaban las "micros" sin pasajeros.Costos y beneficios

La inversión en infraestructura para la habilitación de las vías segregadas significó para el sector público un total de US$ 200 millones, los que fueron destinados para habilitar las redes viales, los paraderos, los puentes peatonales y andenes. Por su parte, los privados debieron gastar US$ 100 millones para modernizar la maquinaria.Los actuales conductores son los mismos del antiguo sistema. Sin embargo, fueron entrenados, trabajan entre seis y ocho horas, su salario es más alto y cuentan con seguro social. Con estas medidas, se eliminó la problemática que los bogotanos conocían como "guerra del centavo", es decir, las carreras que protagonizaban los conductores para captar más pasajeros. Finalmente, se incluyó mujeres en la conducción.Sin embargo, y como todo proyecto de tal envergadura, Transmilenio no ha estado exento de problemas.

Aún existen múltiples falencias de integración y su implementación y actuales planes de expansión han generado dudas acerca de cómo asegurar su futuro como parte integral del transporte urbano.Además, a poco entrar en funcionamiento, los buses "desplazados" protestaron congestionando las calles aledañas. También han existido quejas acerca de la ubicación de los "portales", por el costo del servicio y porque ha habido deficiencias en el horario de salida de los recorridos.Con todo, parece ser que el proyecto verdaderamente cambió el sistema de movilidad de las calles de la capital de Colombia, es de esperar que Transantiago también le de un respiro a las ya congestionadas vías santiaguinas y a quienes circulan por ellas

38 comments:

karin said...

Nah Fernando, how must this very Afrikaans speaking South African girl read what is happening on your blog if it is not at least in English?
i would love to visit you more often (if i can read) lol
take care
k
xx

:: Pau :: said...

Creo que una de las principales culpas del no funcionamiento del sistema en nuestro país es simplemente el desarrollo. La gente ya se ha acostumbrado a que las cosas se hagan para ser entregadas con todas las facilidades existentes... en bandeja, como dicen por ahí.

Estamos aún vagando en el limbo. No nos comportamos como país desarrollado, pero tampoco lo hacemos como un país tercermundiasta. ¿Qué somos entonces?

A mi parecer, Colombia debería ser hoy un ejemplo a seguir. Soy totalmente partidaria de las filas en los paraderos de buses, de la utilización de buses clones y la no existencia de vías reversibles.

Ahora, sólo queda reclamar por la instalación de GPS's y el aumento en la frecuecia de los buses, ya que debido al aumento de la frecuencia del metro este también se ha visto congestionado... no sólo de gente, sino que la poca distancia entre los carros no lo deja avanzar en su velocidad normal. Un poco extraño, no?

Besos mi Boggito.

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Ivan Salcedo said...

Interesante Fernando. Deben congratularse entre ustedfes pues han elegido unas autoridades racionales. En dominicana, gracais a un sueño del presidente Fernandez tenemos un hoyo de 14 kilometros de longitud de un costo de €1.5 mil millones aproximadamente. Sin estudios geologicos la ciudad primada de América sucumbe lentamente en el agujero del Metro que tal ves nunca suceda.

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Anonymous said...

¿adónde vas cuando deseas apenas estar solo? ¿y por qué no puede cualquier persona justo darme hora de pensar? .

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Para quienes tienen PDA, en la pagina www.nanika.net/metro pueden bajar un programa donde esta no solo el sistema TM sino casi todos los sistemas de transporte del mundo. Es buenisimo

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